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January 31, 2024

Daniel Part 12

Chapter 11 is so long and involved that we had to break it up into two separate lessons.

Text Questions




Chapter 11 is so long and involved that we had to break it up into two separate lessons. I need to do a quick review of what we’ve covered so far. You need to have both sheets of questions available because we’re going to finish up the one before moving on to the other. On the sheet with heading “Daniel 1-35 Questions” we were introduced to the vision in verse 1.

READ Daniel 11:1.

Q1 asks, who most likely is the “him” the angel is talking about? The answer can be either Darius or Michael and I provided quotes from reliable sources that back up both answers.

Daniel Chapter 11 is divided into five distinct periods of history. Last week we covered the first three. Alexander the Great is talked about in verse 3.

READ Daniel 11:3 and answer Q2.

Next we looked at the ongoing conflicts between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. These were the two most prominent families that came out of Alexander the Great’s kingdom after his death.

It was like a tug of war back and forth between the king of the south and the king of the north with Israel caught in the middle. Q3 and Q4 explain who they are.

The fighting between these two empires continued for the better part of three centuries. There was intense warfare with great loss of life on both sides. All the fighting was over land and power.

We talked a lot about Antiochus III aka Antiochus the Great. He was the very powerful king of the north (Seleucid) who was prominent for about 40 years in late 2nd Century B.C. and early 3rd Century.

READ Daniel 11:11.

Antiochus the Great, king of the north had a powerful rival in the king of the south who is shown here. Q5 asks who this king of the south is. What you need to remember about Ptolemy IV Philopator is that he annexes Palestine (present day Israel) and profanes the temple of the Jews in Jerusalem. This angers the Jewish people. Back in Egypt, Ptolemy IV launches a wholesale persecution of the Jews. Some 40K Egyptian Jews are martyred because they refuse to embrace the idolatrous Egyptian religion. He was not a good guy!

These two powerful kings, Ptolemy IV and Antiochus the Great, go against each other for quite a while. The downfall of Antiochus the Great was that he got on the bad side of the Romans. They were gaining power at this time and he told them to mind their own business. The Romans in response soundly defeated Antiochus the Great first on land and then again later at sea. He never fully recovered. We ended our lesson with this thought –

READ Daniel 11:16.

Q6. Palestine was a strategic location where Antiochus and the Syrians could keep a close eye on their enemies in Egypt. During this time his troops plunder Palestine unmercifully. So we pointed out that the Jews ended up being harshly treated by both sides!

I closed with this thought: Why study all of this history? The answer is that it shows us that God knows what’s going to happen and that nothing takes Him by surprise. All the prophecies revealed to Daniel that have been fulfilled ended up playing out detail by detail exactly as God said they would. If that’s the case with all those prophecies back then, it will be the case with all the prophecies that are still to be fulfilled today! Sovereign God is in complete control of history!! That same thought applies to today’s lesson.

READ Daniel 11:21.

During his years in Rome, the younger son Antiochus IV Epiphanes had found favor with the Romans. He learned how to use flattery and cunning in getting his way and this helped him become the next king of Syria. Most historians agree, however, that Antiochus Epiphanes was truly a “a contemptible person.”

READ Daniel 11:22.

Soon after Antiochus Epiphanes seized the throne, his nephew, Ptolemy Philometor, now king of Egypt, made an attempt to recover territory previously lost to Syria. His campaign was a disaster and the forces of Syria under Antiochus Epiphanes swept away the army of Egypt as by a flood. The “prince of the covenant” refers to the then Jewish high priest, Onias who was murdered by those loyal to Antiochus Epiphanes for political reasons.

Notice the craftiness of Antiochus Epiphanes in the next two verses.

READ Daniel 11:23-24.

Antiochus Epiphanes gained power under false pretenses; fooling his supporters into believing he was something he was not. He frequently made treaties and pacts with both Rome and Egypt he had no intention to keep. After the defeat of Ptolemy VI Philometor, Antiochus Epiphanes, pretending to make peace with Egypt, was able to briefly gain control of power in Egypt through the treachery of Ptolemy’s own men. Antiochus Epiphanes was a deceitful man. Hoping to make friends and win supporters in Syria, he lavishly distributed the booty he captured from the Egyptians. He next captured three of the four major Egyptian fortress cities that he deemed essential to controlling Egypt – Pelusium, Naucratis and Memphis. However, he was unable to secure Alexandria. Ptolemy VI Philometor’s brother Ptolemy VIII Physcon had successfully defended this city and held it firmly in his grasp.

READ Daniel 11:25-27.

History tells us that Antiochus Epiphanes’ defeat of Ptolemy VI Philometor was due in large part to the betrayal of Ptolemy’s own advisers who had secretly been in cahoots with Antiochus Epiphanes. After his defeat, Ptolemy Philometor sits down at the conference table with Antiochus Epiphanes. They discuss a plan to turn over his brother Ptolemy VIII Physcon in exchange for Ptolemy Philometor being reinstated to the throne of Egypt.  With his plan verbally worked out, Antiochus Epiphanes returned to Syria. Ptolemy, however, double-crossed Antiochus, giving him a taste of his own deceitful medicine. It says, “They shall speak lies at the same table, but to no avail.” Ptolemy Philometor forms an alliance, a joint sovereignty, with his brother Ptolemy Physcon. They issued a proclamation defying Antiochus Epiphanes. For now there was a standoff, but the Egypt and Syria were not finished. The two nations would engage in further conflict at a later date.

READ Daniel 11:28.

Antiochus Epiphanes turns his wrath on the Jews and blames them for his problems. On his return from his campaign against Egypt he attacks Jerusalem and slaughters 80K Jews. He plunders the temple there and carries off treasures valued at 1,800 talents.

READ Daniel 11:29-31.

When Antiochus Epiphanes again attacks Egypt he is thwarted by the Roman fleet, “the ships of Kittim,” harbored on Cyprus. Embarrassed by his setback and anxious to find a scapegoat he once again turns his anger against the Jews at Jerusalem. His army massacres worshippers in the temple. It is at this point that Antiochus Epiphanes issues a decree putting an end to Jehovah worship and ordering everyone to participate in the worship of Zeus and of himself. He views himself as a manifestation, or an epiphany, of the Greek god Zeus.

READ Daniel 11:32-35.

These verses speak of the Jewish resistance that arises against Antiochus Epiphanes and his forces. [Q7] This became known as the Maccabean Revolt.

It all begins in the Jewish village of Modein where villagers are being forced to offer pagan sacrifices. Mattatias Maccabeus, the village priest refuses. When one of the villagers steps forward to comply with the order, the old priest kills the villager and the Syrian royal officer who had given the order. Mattatias and his five grown sons flee to the hills and called for all Jews zealous for God’s Law to join them. In a short time a rebel Jewish force is formed and they engage in guerilla warfare against the Syrian troops. Skirmishes continue throughout the land and after two years Jerusalem is once again under Jewish control.

Get out the sheet labeled “Daniel 11:34-45 Questions.” To begin our second part of Daniel 11 I want to go back and read verses 34 and 35.

READ Daniel 11:34-35.

That phrase “until the time of the end, for it still awaits the appointed time” transitions us from the 2nd Century B.C. to some future appointed time to be determined by God when He says “Enough” and He brings it all to an end. That will lead us to the discussion of the antichrist beginning in verse 36. But, before we move on to that we need to answer Q1 on your sheet.

[Q1] FALSE. God is a good and sovereign God. In His sovereignty God allows a certain degree of evil to exist if it will accomplish His divine purposes.

TRUE. At some point God says, “Enough” and punishes the evildoers.

TRUE. God raised up and empowered Mattatias Maccabeus and his sons (yes, they did get help from the Romans) to drive out from the land the evil armies of Antiochus Epiphanes. Remember our discussion of spiritual warfare back in Daniel 10? God’s angelic forces are constantly battling Satan’s evil forces behind the scenes of human history. That happened during the Maccabean Revolt and I believe it still happens in our world today.

The victorious Jews repair, cleanse and rededicate their temple. All the trappings of pagan worship are removed. The defiled altar is torn down and a new one built in its place.

[Q2] The Feast of Hanukkah is also known as the Festival of Lights.

The brutal reign of Antiochus Epiphanes in the 2nd Century B.C. prefigures the reign of terror by the antichrist which we are told about in Revelation Chapters 13 thru 18. Between verses 35 and 36 the narrative leaps over the centuries. This time leap corresponds to what we observed in Chapter 9 and the Prophecy of the 70 Weeks (recall the “gap” of time). However, from Daniel’s perspective there is no time gap between the end of the 69th week, when the Messiah is cut off, and the beginning of the 70th week, when the antichrist appears on the scene. We can see now, looking back through history, that there is a very long gap of some 20-plus centuries. This coincides with the period known as “the Church Age.”

READ Daniel 11:36 and Second Thessalonians 2:4.

This is the third time Daniel gives us divine insight concerning the antichrist. As you can see there are similarities between what the antichrist does to what Antiochus Epiphanes did previously. Like Antiochus, the antichrist profanes the temple of God in Jerusalem. The antichrist will be arrogant and proud and in full control. He will make himself to be god-like. At the same time he will blaspheme the true and only God.


READ Daniel 11:37.

The antichrist will have no respect for religion or for religious heritages. Given the context of this verse that expression, “the one beloved by women,” likely refers to the pagan fertility goddess of the Babylonians of Daniel’s day. The antichrist will not recognize any religion, not even the pagan ones. Instead he will claim himself to be God.


READ Daniel 11:38-39.

The antichrist’s main desire will be power, specifically military power. He will wage war and achieve overwhelming military victories. With Satan’s influence and power firmly behind him, he will rise to rule over the world. No world power will be able to stand against the forces of the antichrist.


The rest of Chapter 11 describes some of the antichrist’s battles during the seven-year Tribulation period. His desire is to rule the world and he is prepared to fight against any foreign powers that oppose his rule. So this is what we are see in the remaining verses of this chapter.

READ Daniel 11:40.

Here we see our old friends, the king of the north, Syria, and the king of the south, Egypt. Throughout history these two nations have been at odds with each other. But in the last days they will team up to fight against a common opponent – the antichrist.

READ Daniel 11:41.

[Q7] Apparently in the last days the antichrist will occupy Israel, “the glorious land.” He will watch as coalition forces of Syria and Egypt successfully take back a portion of his empire, the area described as Edom, Moab and Ammon.

[Q8] This area is present day Jordan.

READ Daniel 11:42-43.

Egypt apparently will bear the brunt of the antichrist’s attacks. He will seize control of Egypt and plunder that country of its wealth. The museums containing the treasures of the pharaohs will be looted and everything of value will be hauled away. Libya and Ethiopia, “the Cushites,” former allies of Egypt “shall follow in his train.” In other words they will back the antichrist. They will abandon their old friend Egypt and make a peace treaty with the antichrist.

As the Great Tribulation draws to a close, the antichrist’s world domination begins to crumble. Nations from the north, Syria and Jordan and perhaps Russia, and nations from the east, the orient, possibly China, mobilize to march against him.

READ Daniel 11:44.

The antichrist and his supporters prepare for the mother of all battles against these advancing armies. This last decisive battle of human history will be in the Jezreel Valley of modern day Israel, the plains of Megiddo.

READ Daniel 11:45.

The antichrist establishes his military headquarters somewhere between the “glorious holy mountain” (Jerusalem) and “the sea” (Mediterranean). The armies of his supporters await an inevitable confrontation. Time has run out. As the end of the verse suggests, there is no one to help him now. The stage is set for the Battle of Armageddon.

[Q9] Who will defeat the antichrist? Will it be one of those nations from the east like China? Will it be Russia from the north? Will it be Jordan or perhaps Syria who will take him out?

READ Revelation 19:11, 14, 16, 19-20

[Q9 answered] In the end all the armies of the world will unite against one common enemy – the Lord Jesus Christ. They will turn their attention away from fighting each other over land and power. They will team up to fight against God. The antichrist shall come to his end with none to help him. That’s what Daniel 11:45 says. So in the end, whenever that comes, we don’t know when that will be, but in the end God wins. God’s people win. Jesus defeats all of His enemies and sets up His Millennial Kingdom on earth reigning from Jerusalem. Daniel doesn’t see all of those details. But thanks to later revelation given to us by God and recorded by the Apostle John, we DO see it! I firmly believe that the prophecies recorded in Revelation and the parts of Daniel and Ezekiel and Zechariah that have not been fulfilled yet WILL BE FULFILLED EXACTLY AS GOD SAID THEY WOULD! And that is the big takeaway from Daniel Chapter 11

Next week we’ll finish up Daniel looking at Chapter 12.


To provide an outline for each lesson and to facilitate thinking about the primary focal points and their application.

DANIEL: Man of Uncompromising Faith


Daniel 11:34-35 – God’s Purpose Revealed

These verses state the reason why God allowed the atrocities against His people by Antiochus IV Epiphanes in the 2nd Century B.C. It was “so that they may be refined, purified and made white…” (Circle either T for true or F for false by each statement below)

It was God’s will for Antiochus to do what he did to the Jewish people.    T          F

God allowed Antiochus to go only so far before delivering His people.      T          F

God empowered the Maccabees to drive out Antiochus and his army.       T          F

What holiday commemorating the rededication of the Temple following the Maccabean Revolt is still celebrated by Jews today? (Check best answer)

___ Purim            ___ Rosh Hashanah            ___ Yom Kippur            ___ Hanukkah

Daniel 11:36-45 – The Period of the Antichrist

HOW is “the king” from these verses in Daniel 11 referred to in the following passages?

Daniel 7:8 _______________________    Daniel 9:26 ________________________________

Second Thessalonians 2:3 MAN of __________________ and SON of ____________________

Revelation 13:1 __________________________

According to verse 36, is this king FOR or AGAINST God? (Circle one)     


WHO does this king exalt above everyone else? See verse 37 _____________________

How does this king recruit people to his side? See verse 39 (Check best answer)

___ Promises rewards       ___ Intimidation       ___ Instills patriotism       ___ Pleads for help

According to verse 41 WHAT will this king do to Israel? He will _________________ Israel

Verse 41 tells us that the Edom, Moab and Ammon will be delivered from this king. These nations comprise what modern day country? (Check best answer)

___ Kuwait       ___ Lebanon       ___ Jordan       ___ Saudi Arabia       ___ Turkey

“He shall come to his end with none to help him” (verse 45) describes the end of the king. According to Revelation 19 WHO defeats this king? __________________________


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